What is the electrical self-consumption and how to dispose of it?


What is the electrical self-consumption and how to dispose of it?

What is the electrical self-consumption and how to dispose of it?

Energy Self-consumption 0

A growing trend is being created towards the use of renewable energies and electricity self-consumption through installations such as solar panels or mini-wind power. That is why at Lumisa we want to explain to you what self-consumption is and how to dispose of it.

With the publication of the new Royal Decree 244/2019, of April 5, which regulates the administrative, technical and economic conditions of self-consumption of electricity, as well as Royal Decree-Law 15/2018, of October 5, of urgent measures for the energy transition and the protection of consumers, they have repealed a large part of the regulations that regulated it, introducing a series of novelties.

Electricity self-consumption is the consumption by one or more consumers of electric energy from production facilities close to and associated with those of consumption. The energy produced is destined to satisfy to a large extent the habitual consumption of the home.

Types of self-consumption

Isolated self-consumption

It is an electricity consumption connected only with a house. It is not connected to the conventional Transport and Distribution electrical network. It is usually found in rural areas with low population, far away since the electricity grid can not reach these homes. Either by having a higher cost as by physical impossibility.

When not being connected to the conventional electrical network, it is essential that they have some batteries, in order to accumulate and store the generated energy.

Self-consumption connected to the network

It is an electricity consumption that is connected to both the housing and the physical transmission network and conventional distribution. This type of facilities can have both batteries that store the generated energy, although it is not essential as they have the electric network of transport and distribution supplementary.

Therefore, the electricity company that we hire will provide us with electricity when the solar panel system can not supply us.

Royal Decree-Law 15/2018 establishes two types of electric self-consumption.

Self-consumption without surplus

Self-consumption without surpluses is intended solely to cover the energy needs of the home. Only an access and connection permit will be required for your consumer facilities.

Self-consumption with surpluses

The energy producer through solar panels can dump said excess production by injecting it into the Transmission and Distribution electricity grid.

Self-consumption with surpluses receiving compensation. It will occur when the consumer and the producer choose to benefit from surplus compensation. As long as it meets a series of requirements.

  • Installations with power not exceeding 100 kW
  • It is necessary to make a supply contract for Auxiliary Production Services.
  • That there is no additional or specific remuneration regime.

Self-consumption with surpluses not eligible for compensation. If they do not meet the aforementioned requirements, as well as if they do not wish to take advantage of this modality.

Types of self-consumption

Isolated self-consumption

Royal Decree 244/2019 establishes a type of compensation more oriented to the domestic customer. It is not necessary to register as a producer, as well as subsequent uploads.

The Royal Decree reduces administrative procedures, since in installations of up to 15 kW or not greater than 100 kW in the case of self-consumption without surpluses, it is reduced to the only management that is to notify the electrical production facility electronically in its corresponding Community Autonomous City. For installations of less than 100kW in low voltage, the administrations will gather information from the Bulletin presented.

It is an economic compensation, therefore, consumption is billed at the price of the contracted rate and the surplus will be defined by the marketer, probably being the market price.

For existing facilities, regulated by Royal Decree 900/2015, of October 9, which regulates the administrative, technical and economic conditions of the modes of electricity supply with self-consumption and production with self-consumption. They become:

  • Type 1 mode with antivertido: it will become Self-consumption without surpluses.
  • Type 1 modality without antivertido: it will become Self-consumption with excesses not eligible for compensation.
  • Type 2 modality: it will become Self-consumption with surpluses not eligible for compensation.

Therefore, in the period of 6 months from April 5, 2019, consumers who are in any of the modalities described above must notify the competent body in energy matters in their Community.

Net balance

Although in Spain it has not yet been approved, the operation of this modality is that the excess consumption generated by our solar panels can be poured into the electricity grid. Subsequently, the electricity company will deduct the energy that has been discharged from our monthly consumption. It is not an economic compensation for the energy discharged, but rather the subsequent discount of it.

Example Net Balance

As energy consumption is 200 kW per month, consuming 100 kW from the solar panel system and 100 kW billed through the contracted electricity company.

If the solar installation produces about 150 kW, the solar panels discharge an excess of 50 kW to the electricity grid.

Therefore, the contracted electricity company will compensate the customer for the surplus energy in each monthly bill. In the example shown, only 50 kW of difference will be charged in a subsequent billing.

The data entered are indicative.

What do you need to have electric self-consumption?

One of the biggest doubts about electric self-consumption is about the necessary infrastructure to generate its own energy. Generally having all the necessary infrastructure requires an important investment, although it will be amortized in the medium term.

Necessary infrastructure

The most common domestic self-consumption installation types are:

  • Solar photovoltaic panels. It is a device created in order to convert the light that is reflected in them into electrical current. If you reside in Spain, solar panels will be more recommendable since it is a mostly sunny country. In addition and thanks to the technological evolution is a more affordable system. For the installation of solar panels it will be necessary that you have a surface like a roof, being useful in single-family houses.
  • Mini wind. Energy is obtained by wind.
  • Charge regulator. The regulator controls the current that is absorbed by the battery in order to avoid a dangerous overload. In the case of not having batteries, the charge controller would not be necessary.
  • Investor. The inverter or converter transforms the DC power from the generator into alternating current. The solar panels produce continuous energy, for this reason the inverter transforms it since in most of the houses alternating current is used. 
  • Batteries. The batteries or accumulators store the energy generated by the solar panels during the sun hours in order to use it when more energy can not be generated. The reasons are varied, since it is at night, cloudy or because there is a consumption greater than the power generated.

It is the element with the most economic cost of the installation since the useful life is more limited.

  • Switch. The switch is a switch that allows switching from one power source to another. An automatic change can occur with the failure of a network.
Power generation procedure

Before starting with the installation of the infrastructure it will be essential to carry out a preliminary study through a qualified professional.

Factors to consider for the installation of solar energy

Depending on the geographical area. If we hesitate to install self-consumption we must take into account the geographical area where you reside. Although Spain is extremely sunny, compared to other European countries, it should be mentioned that while the southern half of the peninsula enjoys more hours of sun, the north of it can not take advantage of solar energy in the same way.

Depending on the type of housing. It is essential to have a roof of your own in your home for the installation of solar panels.

Depending on whether it is an isolated self-consumption or self-consumption connected to the Network, one procedure or another will take place.

Once you have informed, through a qualified professional, you have two options to perform the installation.

  • Through a company specialized in the installation of solar energy collection, storage and distribution equipment.
  • Perform the installation on your own.

In both cases the economic investment will be high depending on the size of it. It is a cost that implies the cost of the necessary materials, as well as the placement of the panels and the materials themselves.

The electric self-consumption can be considered profitable, amortizable in the long run. However, we must bear in mind that it will not be immediately.

The sun tax

The sun tax is a levy applied on the bills of energy producers for self-consumption through solar panels which was an impediment for consumers who wanted to access an alternative energy system. This tax made the electricity bill even more expensive.

That is why, with the approval of Royal Decree-Law 15/2018, of October 5, on urgent measures for the energy transition and the protection of consumers, the sun tax was abolished, thus promoting electric self-consumption in Spain.

Therefore, consumers of solar energy will no longer have to pay that tax facilitating access to this type of electricity consumption to Spanish households.

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